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Singapore 259772. i. Retrieved from www.deq.state.mi.us/documents/deq-wd-wurpAgriculture2004.pdf, Michigan Department of Environmental Quality (MDEQ). The Hinrich Foundation Sustainable Trade Index 2020, commissioned to the Economist Intelligence Unit (EIU), examines the role of sustainable trade for … Public supply refers to fresh water withdrawn by community public water suppliers that furnish water to at least 25 people or have a minimum of 15 service connections. We summarize the methods used to compile water-use information and discuss ways in which actual water withdrawals may be over or under reported. (2009). 469C Bukit Timah Road. 2 The per capita use coefficient of 86.3 gallons per capita per day is adapted from a 1999 study of publicly supplied residential use conducted by the American Water Works Association (Mayer et al., 1999, as cited by Luukkonen, personal communication, 2008). (1999). For questions about accessibility and/or if you need additional accommodations for a specific document, please send an email to ANR Communications & Marketing at anrcommunications@anr.msu.edu. 444K likes. Surface water sources include the Great Lakes and inland lakes and streams. Water withdrawals by major user categories in Michigan, 2004, million gallons per day. Lee Kuan Yew School of Public Policy Part of the National University of Singapore, the Lee Kuan Yew School of Public Policy (LKY School) was established in 2004 with the mission of educating and inspiring current and future generations of leaders to raise the standards of governance in Asia. The domestic use numbers presented in this section are calculated according to the method described previously: an estimated domestic use population of 2.9 million is multiplied by a per capita use of 86.3 gallons per day. The exception is domestic water withdrawals. Agricultural irrigators with the capacity to withdraw more than 100,000 GPD may report to the Michigan Department of Agriculture (MDA) or to the MDEQ. The 4-H Name and Emblem have special protections from Congress, protected by code 18 USC 707. www.deq.state.mi.us/documents/deq-wd-wurpAgriculture2004.pdf, www.deq.state.mi.us/documents/deq-wd-wurpIndustrial04.pdf, www.census.gov/popest/states/NSTann-est.html, www.michigan.gov/deq/0,1607,7-135-3313_3675_3692-9395--,00.html. MSU is an affirmative-action, equal-opportunity employer, committed to achieving excellence through a diverse workforce and inclusive culture that encourages all people to reach their full potential. Denver, CO: American Water Works Association Research Foundation and American Water Works Association. Apply to # LKYSPP to learn from the best: https://lkyspp.sg/3nMvA3A See More Lee Kuan Yew School of Public Policy National University of Singapore. Thermoelectric power generation use is self-supplied water withdrawn by fossil fuel and nuclear power plants primarily for cooling systems that dissipate waste heat produced in the power generation process. Lee Kuan Yew School of Public Policy, Singapur. (U.S. Geological Survey Circular 1268). For example, non-community public water supply systems (below the capacity threshold) are not required to report withdrawals. Maintaining accurate information about the amount of water used in Michigan and the purposes of its use is important for effective water resource management. Of the total 290.3 MGD of water withdrawn for irrigation use in 2004, 88 percent was for agriculture. We then describe the various types of water use that are tracked. National University of Singapore. “An open cooling system, such as once-through cooling, withdraws water continuously from a natural water body, circulates the water through condensers in the plant once to remove waste heat, then discharges the water back into a receiving water body. Aranda was named after the orchid, Aranda Lee Kuan Yew and serves the school in its admissions application process. (Scientific Investigations Report 2007–5197). Source: Hutson et al., 2004 and Solley, Pierce & Perlman, 1998. National and state population estimates, annual population estimates 2000-2009. 2004 water withdrawals for golf course irrigation in Michigan, by county. Retrieved from www.michigan.gov/deq/0,1607,7- 135-3313_3675_3692-9395--,00.html. The Great Lakes–St. The model, developed by the MDEQ, the MDA and Michigan State University (MSU), uses county-level data from the U.S. Census of Agriculture for irrigated farms greater than 14 acres, and local weather and soils data (MDEQ, 2006). Another category of water use that is not inventoried is withdrawals for livestock production that are below the capacity threshold. deq.state.mi.us/documents/deq-wd-wurp-Golf2004. The MDEQ reported that 1,437 community public water supply systems withdrew water to serve 7.2 million persons (more than 71 percent of Michigan’s population) in 2004. Most of the water withdrawn (87 percent) was taken from the Great Lakes (Figure 1). Singapore 259772. i. Retrieved from www.epa.gov/awi/pdf/600f09019.pdf. On the one hand, the study from which the per capita use coefficient was adapted measured water use primarily in metropolitan areas. The distinction between withdrawals and use is significant in some cases, but that distinction is often lost when the terms are used. Retrieved from www.census.gov/popest/states/NSTann-est.html, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA). (n.d. 4). Reston, VA: U.S. Geological Survey. The Great Lakes−St. Estimated use of water in the United States in 2005. - A considerable amount of water withdrawn by public water supply systems does not reach end users. The authors would like to thank Andrew Lebaron (MDEQ), Carol Luukkonen (USGS) and Ruth KlineRobach (MSUE) for their review of this bulletin. (2009). In addition, many domestic wells supply water for livestock-related purposes in addition to indoor and outdoor household uses. Those 44 plants withdrew a total of 8,885 MGD, with the majority of water withdrawn from the Great Lakes (95 percent). However, the USGS estimates withdrawals for livestock uses in Michigan at 84.9 million GPD for 2005 (Kenny et al., 2009). Losses of 10 to 20 percent through leakages from public water supply systems (called conveyance losses) are considered normal, and in some locations, as much as 50 percent of water distributed is being lost from aging infrastructure (USEPA, 2009). For example, the USGS defines water use as water withdrawn or diverted from surface water and ground water sources (Hutson et al., 2004). (2009). 444K likes. Because domestic users are not required to report withdrawals in Michigan, the USGS uses data on public supply withdrawals and population to estimate domestic use for Michigan. Lee Kuan Yew School of Public Policy, สิงคโปร์. Washington, DC: National Academy Press. A summary of water withdrawals by category of user and water source is shown in Table 2. Examples of indoor uses are drinking water, preparing food, bathing, washing clothes and flushing toilets. Return flow – water that reaches a groundwater or surface water source after release from the point of use and thus becomes available for further use. Unlike some states, Michigan does not report annual withdrawals by livestock production facilities. National University of Singapore. Shaffer and Runkle completed a comprehensive review of consumptive-use coefficients reported in the literature for the Great Lakes Basin and climatically similar areas. Irrigation use is fresh water applied by an irrigation system to assist in the growing of crops and pastures or to maintain vegetative growth on recreational lands such as golf courses. The USGS adds estimates for categories of users not reported by the states and publishes its report every five years as part of the National Water Use Information Program. Shaffer, K.H., & Runkle, D.L. Lee Kuan Yew School of Public Policy, Singapore, Singapore. Estimated use of water in the United States in 2000. Their summary provided the values reported in Table 1. Consumptive use – that part of water withdrawn that is evaporated, transpired, incorporated into products or crops, consumed by humans or livestock, or otherwise removed from the immediate water environment.Consumptive-use values may be calculated by subtracting return flow and conveyance losses from withdrawals. Understanding water use by different sectors can help with planning for economic development, land use and ecosystem protection. Even before the changes to Michigan’s water law, the MDEQ compiled and reported water withdrawals by thermoelectric power plants, self-supplied industries, irrigators and public water supply systems. Mayer, P.W., DeOreo, W.B., Opitz, E.M., Kiefer, J.C., Davis, W.Y., Dziegielewski, B., & Nelson, J.O. This category of users withdrew 250.3 MGD or about 2.2 percent of total water withdrawn by all major sectors. Lee Kuan Yew School of Public Policy. The USGS applies a per capita use coefficient of 86.3 gallons per capita per day2 to the domestic use population to estimate total water use by this sector. Water withdrawals for self-supplied industrial manufacturing in Michigan 2004. 6 The interim reporting protocols, adopted with Resolution #9 in December 2009, can be viewed at: www.glslcompactcouncil.org/ Resolutions.aspx, Tags: lakes, natural resources, streams & watersheds, water quality, Natural Resources, Lakes, Streams & Watersheds, Water Quality. 469C Bukit Timah Road. Water withdrawals reported by Michigan may over- or under-estimate actual water use for a number of reasons. Withdrawals for livestock production, including aquaculture, are also not reported if they fall below the 100,000 GPD threshold. Source: Data reported in or calculated based on MDEG (2006). 406 likes. Telephone: +65 6601 6254 (Graduate Programmes) +65 6601 5503 (Executive Education) Email: decb64_bGt5c3BwQG51cy5lZHUuc2c=_decb64 (General enquiries or feedback) (2009). For several reasons, estimations of domestic withdrawals may be inaccurate. - Prof. Teo Yik Ying, Dean, Saw Swee Hock School of Public Health, NUS - Prof. Tikki Pangestu, Visiting Professor, Lee Kuan Yew School of Public Policy, NUS - Assoc. Methods applied by the United States Geological Survey (USGS) add domestic uses of residential wells to the mix; the additional 250 million gallons per day (MGD) withdrawn from residential wells brings the total estimated water withdrawals for 2004 to 11,198MGD or more than four trillion total gallons. Total withdrawals for irrigation were only about three percent of thermoelectric withdrawals. These coefficients indicate “the percentage of water removed from the immediate environment by evaporation, transpiration, incorporation into products or crops, or consumption by humans or livestock” (Shaffer & Runkle, 2007). Established in 1950, the NWUIP is the only source of comprehensive water-use information at the national level that provides data for analysis on status and trends of water use throughout the U.S. (NRC, 2002). The Great Lakes supplied almost 68 percent of the water withdrawn. Drew Thompson Visiting Senior Research Fellow at National University of Singapore Lee Kuan Yew School of Public Policy and Senior Research Scientist at CNA Corporation. Applying the median values of consumptive-use coefficients shown in Table 1 to total withdrawals, total consumptive use by sector was estimated for 2004 withdrawals (Table 3). Of these, 44 had the withdrawal capacity requiring them to report water use for 2004. 1 The most recent U.S. Census estimate of Michigan’s 2004 population, reported in 2008, was 10,090,280 (U.S. Census, 2009). (2004). 3 www.michigan.gov/deq/0,1607,7-135-3313_3675_3692-9395--,00.html. The primary source of water (almost 77 percent) for public supply was the Great Lakes, although Great Lakes water was withdrawn for public supply in only 34 of Michigan’s 83 counties. Reston, VA: U.S. Geological Survey. michigan.gov/documents/deq/deq-wb-wurpTEreport06_214956_7.pdf, Michigan Department of Environmental Quality (MDEQ). In 2018, the Lee Kuan Yew School of Public Policy's External Affairs and Marketing team Social Media team launched a Facebook Chatbot named Aranda. Patricia E. Norris is the Guyer-Seevers Chair in Natural Resource Conservation; Department of Community, Agriculture, Recreation and Resource Studies; Michigan State University. Lee Kuan Yew School of Public Policy. 444K likes. The distinction is important because estimates of water demand for certain uses may be inaccurate if they are generated using data on water withdrawn and distributed by public water supplies rather than water actually used by those being served. A lack of reliable data on the number of residential wells in Michigan and the number of people served by these wells further complicates estimating domestic withdrawals accurately. Lee Kuan Yew School of Public Policy. For 2004, 619 irrigated golf courses were registered in the Michigan Water Use Reporting Program (MDEQ, n.d. 2). In this document, we review water use by principal user categories in Michigan and the ways in which that use is measured or estimated and reported. The NWUIP generates comprehensive national, state and county water-use reports every five years. Golf course irrigators with the capacity to withdraw more than 100,000 GPD report withdrawals to the MDEQ. pdf, Michigan Department of Environmental Quality (MDEQ). Water withdrawals are reported by public water suppliers to the MDEQ either monthlyor annually (depending upon size) along with the water quality information required by Michigan’s Safe Drinking Water Act. Prof. Joanne Yoong, Senior Economist & Director, Center for Economic and Social Research, University of Southern California. Because data on return flows and conveyance losses is problematic, consumptive use is generally estimated with consumptive-use coefficients. Moderator: 469C Bukit Timah Road. This represents about a five percent increase from the 2000 USGS estimate of 239 MGD withdrawn by domestic users (an estimated 2.8 million people relying upon private wells). 456 mil Me gusta. The MDEQ collects data on the number of residents served by public water supplies, and the USGS subtracts that number from the state’s total population to estimate population served by domestic wells. … This data is presented on a percentage of total basis in Figures 1 and 2. Domestic withdrawals are also not reported, but domestic uses are estimated by the USGS using the approach described earlier. Major outdoor uses include watering lawns and gardens. A closed system, such as a cooling pond, cooling tower, or radiator heat exchanger,recycles the same cooling water more than once, requiring only periodic withdrawals to replace water losses. Michigan has 11,000 non-community systems that serve 1.7 million people on a periodic basis (MDEQ, 2009). National University of Singapore. Michigan Department of Environmental Quality (MDEQ). All withdrawals are fresh water from groundwater and surface water sources. 443K likes. Singapore 259772. i. Lee Kuan Yew School of Public Policy, Singapore, Singapore. Off-stream use (also called withdrawal use) – water withdrawn or diverted from groundwater or surface water sources for aquaculture, commercial, domestic self-supply, industrial, irrigation, livestock, mining, public supply, thermoelectric power and other uses. As part of i. mplementing the Compact and facilitating water resource management in Michigan, additions to Michigan’s body of water law require that all water users who withdraw on average more than 100,000 gallons per day over any consecutive 30-day period report annually the amount of water withdrawn from surface water or groundwater sources. In general, a water user withdrawing surface or ground water is not required to report withdrawals if withdrawal capacity is less than 100,000 GPD averaged over any consecutive 30-day period. The large range of consumptiveuse coefficient values for livestock reflects the large number of animal species included and substantial differences in how water is used for different species and different production practices. Total water use in Michigan during 2004 was 11,198.6 MGD or almost 4.1 trillion total gallons for the year. During that year, these water users together withdrew more than 10,948 million gallons of water per day. The Covid-19 pandemic has provided a stark and painful reminder of why the concept of sustainable trade is so critical. However, calculating consumptive use is challenging because information on return flows and conveyance losses is required but difficult to obtain. Consumptive water-use coefficients for the Great Lakes Basin and climatically similar areas. Lee Kuan Yew School of Public Policy, Singapore, Singapore. (1990). Lee Kuan Yew School of Public Policy, Singapore, Singapore. On the other hand, this underestimation may be offset, at least in part, by the fact that the water-use study from which the per capitause coefficient was derived reported leakages in household plumbing for the sample used in the study of as much as 10 percent of water withdrawn; one cannot automatically assume that homeowners with private wells have plumbing that is as leaky as the public water supply users included in the study. In-stream use (also called non-withdrawal use or in-channel use) – water that is used, but not withdrawn, from a surface water source for purposes such as hydroelectric power generation, navigation, water quality improvement, fish propagation and recreation. The 1990 Census of Population and Housing included information on the number of households relying upon private wells5 , but that data series was discontinued with the 2000 Census. Welcome to the noncommunity water supply site. Total water withdrawals by major user. Total consumptive use by major user category, 2004, million gallons per day. Based on the number of persons served by public watersupply facilities in 2004, approximately 2.9 million people – almost 29 percent of the population – relied upon private domestic wells. Telephone: +65 6601 6254 (Graduate Programmes) +65 6601 5503 (Executive Education) Email: decb64_bGt5c3BwQG51cy5lZHUuc2c=_decb64 (General enquiries or feedback) In 2004, 380 self-supplied industrial facilities withdrew a total of 628.8 MGD, almost 6 percent of total water withdrawn in Michigan. Coefficients are calculated periodically based on data collected by a few self-supplied users who have measured withdrawals and return flows or by public supply facilities that have measured and/or estimated deliveries, releases to sewage-treatment facilities, leakages, in-flows and return flows. Lee Kuan Yew School of Public Policy. Thus, much of the water used in schools, churches, restaurants, motels and campgrounds is not accounted for. Singapore 259772. i. Public supply also includes public uses such as fire fighting and street washing, and water for parks and other community uses. Lee Kuan Yew School of Public Policy, Singapore, Singapore. Conveyance loss – water that is lost in transit from a pipe, canal, conduit or ditch by leakage or evaporation. Then, those coefficients are extrapolated to similar uses in other locations. Generally, the water is not available for further use; however, leakage from an irrigation ditch, for example, may percolate to groundwater and be available for further use. IPS became an autonomous research centre of the Lee Kuan Yew School of Public Policy at the National University of Singapore in 2008. 4 In its estimates of water use in 2005, the USGS reports that Michigan’s 2.9 million people served by private wells surpass the number of people served by private wells in any other state, including California (Kenny et al., 2009). Table 2. Compliance with this Compactrelated activity would mean that withdrawals by more types of water users would be compiled and reported for Michigan, although only for those users withdrawing more than 100,000 GPD. Saichon Seedang, Maintaining accurate information about the amount of water used in Michigan and the purposes of its use is important for effective water resource management. The MDEQ report of 2004 water withdrawals describes three types of cooling systems: open, closed and combination. Consumptive-use coefficients are smallest for thermoelectric power plants, many of which return cooling water to a surface water source with very little evaporation in the process. 469C Bukit Timah Road. However, this does not mean that 1,121,066 private residential wells were used in 1990, since the Census included in this count those cases where up to four separate housing units were using the same well (U.S. Census, 1990). Industrial water use refers to self-supplied withdrawals of water for industrial processing, washing, cooling and other purposes. Retreived from www.census.gov/prod/ cen1990/cph5/cph-5.html, U.S. Census. 1990 census of population and housing. However, whether or not the existing approaches used for measuring or estimating water withdrawals in Michigan will change is unclear. (n.d. 1). Retrieved from www.deq.state.mi.us/documents/deq-wd-wurpIndustrial04.pdf, Michigan Department of Environmental Quality (MDEQ). Kenny, J.F., Barber, N.L., Hutson, S.S., Linsey, K.S., Lovelace, J.K., & Maupin, M.A. Residential end uses of water. Also, creating and maintaining an inventory of water withdrawals and water uses is an important part of complying with the Great Lakes–St. October 20, 2015 Equating water withdrawals with water use is misleading when not all water withdrawn reaches its intended user. In fact, the single category of thermoelectric power users accounted for the largest percentage of total water withdrawn (almost 80 percent) in Michigan (Figure 2). MSU is an affirmative-action, equal-opportunity employer. Retrieved from www. In 2004, industries in primary metals, paper and allied products, chemicals and allied products, and mines and quarries sectors accounted for the majority of self-supplied industrial users with the capacity to withdraw more than 100,000 GPD (MDEQ, n.d. 3). Saichon Seedang was formerly a visiting assistant professor with the Guyer-Seevers Program in Natural Resource Conservation; Department of Community, Agriculture, Recreation and Resource Studies; Michigan State University and is now a senior research fellow, Institute of Water Policy, Lee Kuan Yew School of Public Policy; National University of Singapore. The most recent year for which information for all categories was released was 2004. The Institute of Policy Studies (IPS) was established in 1988 as an independent think-tank to study and generate public policy ideas in Singapore. (2007). (1998). Total water withdrawals by source, Figure 2. Denver, CO: U.S. Geological Survey. Ground water accounts for just less than 22 percent of withdrawals for public supply; the remaining 1.5 percent is from inland lakes and streams. Author: Solley, W.B., Pierce, R.R., & Perlman, H.A. Consumptive-use coefficients for agriculture (irrigation and livestock uses) are the largest compared to other uses. Issued in furtherance of MSU Extension work, acts of May 8 and June 30, 1914, in cooperation with the U.S. Department of Agriculture. (2006). The MDEQ collects water withdrawal information from all public water suppliers and from self-supplied users with the capacity to withdraw more than 100,000 gallons per day (GPD) over any consecutive 30-day period. Water use in areas where private domestic wells predominate may include more withdrawals for watering lawn and flower gardens, washing automobiles and filling swimming pools than are observed in metropolitan areas. This information is for educational purposes only. Consumptive-use coefficients by water-use category for the Great Lake Basin. However, public suppliers often cannot determine with certainty how many of their customers are households and how many are other types of users, such as businesses. Also, creating and maintaining an inventory of water withdrawals and water uses is an important part of complying with the Great Lakes–St. Lawrence River Basin Water Resources Council adopted a set of interim reporting protocols to help ensure that all Great Lakes states apply a common and consistent process for collecting water withdrawal information.6 The protocol specifies the water-use sectors for which withdrawal data will be reported and the information to be collected. Groundwater supplied most irrigation for both agriculture and golf courses (64 percent); inland lakes and streams provided almost 34 percent of irrigation water. Lawrence River Basin Water Resources Compact (the Compact). In particular, estimates of consumptive use (defined in Box 1) convey how much of the water withdrawn is returned to its source and how much is removed to another watershed. Hutson, S.S., Barber, N.L., Kenny, J.F., Linsey, K.S., Lumia, D.S, & Maupin, M.A. Understanding water use by different sectors can help with planning for economic development, land use and ecosystem protection. In some cases, a power plant may use a combination of cooling systems for the same generating unit” (MDEQ, n.d. 4). We first clarify how the terms water use and water withdrawal are used in Michigan’s Water Use Reporting Program and by other entities that compile and report water-use information. (n.d. 2). For the report of 2004 water withdrawals, however, the MDEQ reported agricultural irrigation withdrawals estimated using a computer model rather than actual reported withdrawals. Jeffrey W. Dwyer, Director, MSU Extension, East Lansing, MI 48824. 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